2012年考研英语,2012考研英语二第四篇英语解题方

日期:2019-09-19编辑作者:4886a威尼斯城官网

  Text 3

  这在原文中有:they were more aware of the struggles of others体现,但是这只是说有了一种意识,而不是真的“each other”的与任何人都去“struggle against”,故属于同形不同义,排除。

In 2010. a federal judge shook America's biotech industry to its core. Companies had won patents for isolated DNA for decades-by 2005 some 20% of human genes were parented. But in March 2010 a judge ruled that genes were unpatentable. Executives were violently agitated. The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a trade group, assured members that this was just a “preliminary step” in a longer battle.    On July 29th they were relieved, at least temporarily. A federal appeals court overturned the prior decision, ruling that Myriad Genetics could indeed holb patents to two genss that help forecast a woman's risk ofbreast cancer. The chief executive of Myriad, a company in Utah,said the ruling was a blessing to firms and patients alike.    But as companies continue their attempts at personalised medicine, the courts will remain rather busy. The Myriad case itself is probably not over Critics make three main arguments against gene patents: a gene is a product of nature, so it may not be patented; gene patents suppress innovation rather than reward it; and patents' monopolies restrict access to genetic testssuch as Myriad's. A growing number seem to agree.Last year a federal task-force urged reform for patents related to genetic tests. In October the Department of Justice filed a brief in the Myriad case, arguing that an isolated DNA molecule “is no less a product of nature... than are cotton fibres that have been separated from cotton seeds. ”    Despite the appeals court's decision, big questions remain unanswered. For example, it is unclear whether the sequencing of a whole genome violates the patents of indivi dual genes within it. The case may yet reach the Supreme Court。

  [C]challenge their lifestyle,C选项,挑战了他们的生活方式。

  AS the industry advances ,however,other suits may have an even greater impact.companies are unlikely to file many more patents for human DNA molecules-most are already patented or in  the public domain .firms are now studying how genes intcract,looking for correlations that might be used to determine the causes of disease or predict a drug’s efficacy,companies are eager to win patents for ‘connecting the dits’,expaains hans sauer,alawyer for the BIO。

  该选项符合文章中的相关内容,与题干结合有歧义,即人们自己挑战自己的生活方式。实际上,原文所提及的一些题改变是人们迫不得已的重新思考的结果,而不是人们自主的挑战。所以,排除此选项。

  Their success may be determined by a suit related to this issue, brought by the Mayo Clinic, which the Supreme Court will hear in its next term. The BIO rtcently held a convention which included seddions to coach lawyers on the shifting landscape for patents. Each meeting was packed。

  [D]reconsider their lifestyle ,D选项,重新思考他们的时候方式。

  31.it canbe learned from paragraph I that the biotech companies would like-----

  文章中“had improved them in some ways;”;“they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others。”;“At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending”都是一种基于改变的思考,故选D选项。

  A.their executives to be active

  第38题,结合文章研读选项:

  B.judges to rule out gene patenting

  [A]impose a heavier burden on immigrants,A选项,加重外来移民的负担。

  C.genes to be patcntablc

  原文中表述如下:Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases即反移民的情绪增加,但是这不是移民的负担,所以与上题的多干扰项一样,属于同形不同义,排除。

  D.the BIO to issue a warning

  [B]bring out more evils of human nature ,B选项,使显示出更多的人性的罪恶。

  32.those who are against gene patents believe that----

  通过对“engthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes。”的综合,可以确定,此选项为正确选项。

  A.genetic tests are not reliable

  “[C]Promote the advance of rights and freedoms,C选项,推动权力和自由的进步”以及“[D]ease conflicts between races and classes,D选项,缓和各个种族与各个阶级之间的冲突”明显与原文“stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms。”以及“does conflict between races and classes”不符合,所以排除。

  B.only man-made products are patentable

  故,最终确认,答案为B选项。

  C.patents on  genes depend much on innovatiaon

  第39题,结合文章研读选项:

  D.courts should restrict access to gene tic tests

  Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind。

  33.according to hans sauer ,companies are eager to win patents for----

  [A]lag behind the others due to decreased opportunities,A选项,由于缺少机会而落后于其他人。

  A.establishing disease comelations

  文章中有“decrease opportunities to cross them”,但是此句,只是在讨论前面的核心点“class divides”,而不是有关于“elite universities”。

  B.discovering gene interactions

  而“left behind”所在“ it is the masses beneath them that are left behind。”这一句是一个明显的强调句型,还原为原句后是:the masses beneath them are left behind. 其中them指代前面的“those with degrees from elite universities”即题干中的名牌大学生。故该句翻译成:在名牌大学之后的大众们被抛在后面。

  C.drawing pictures of genes

  所以,名牌大学生没有因为机会少而落后,故属于同形不同义,排除。

  D.identifying human DNA

  [B]catch up quickly with experienced employees,B选项,以很快赶上了经验丰富的员工。

  34.By saying “each meeting was packed”(line4,para6)the author means that -----

  原文中有:those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times。其“catch up quickly with ”对象是“where they have been”,而非人,所以,排除不选。

  A.the supreme court was authoritative

  [C]see their life chances as dimmed as the others’,C选项,和其他人一样把他们的生活机会看的很暗淡。

  B.the BIO was a powerful organization

  根据原文,同样可以知道,他们不会如同其他人一样,所以排除。

  C.gene patenting was a great concern

  [D]recover more quickly than the others,D选项,比其他人回复的更快速。

  D.lawyers were keen to attend conventiongs

  在原文中的“those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind。”说明,第一名牌大学生会去到在较好的时代不能去到的高度,其次他们可以超过其他人,所以,答案为,他们恢复的更快。

  35.generally speaking ,the author’s attitude toward gene patenting is----

  第30题,在文章中不好确定,故进入第四步骤解题。

  A.critical

  第四步骤:全文解题。

  B.supportive

  全文前四个段落都已出题,唯独最后一个段落没有出题,根据出题区域不重复的原则(相见同上),所以研读选项后,重点研读最后一个段落。

  C.scornful

  [A]certain ,A选项,确定的。

  D.objective

  [B]positive,B选项,积极地。

  Text 4

  [C]trivial,C选项,琐碎的。

  The great recession may be over, but this era of high joblessness is probably beginning. Before it ends,

  [D]destructive,D选项,毁灭的。

  it will likely change the life course and character of a generation of young adults. And ultimately, it is likely to reshape our politics,our culture, and the character of our society for years。

  C选项与D选项,属于负面选项,纵观全文,内容较为可观且积极,所以负面的选项,应该排除,其实这也好理解,就是如果真的是全负面的影响,美国人民可能就是去活下去的勇气了……

  No one tries harder than the jobless to find silver linings in this national economic disaster. Many said that unemployment, while extremely painful, had improved them in some ways; they had become less materialistic and more financially prudent; they were more aware of the struggles of others. In limited respects, perhaps the recession will leave society better off. At the very least, it has awoken us from our national fever dream of easy riches and bigger houses, and put a necessary end to an era of reckless personal spending。

  而,很多同学会被B选项,积极地,所迷惑,原因是文中提及了很多好一点的内容,但是,在文章中的最后一段有原文:We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer they extend。

  But for the most part, these benefits seem thin, uncertain, and far off. In The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth, the economic historian Benjamin Friedman argues that both inside and outside the U.S. ,lengthy periods of economic stagnation or decline have almost always left society more mean-spirited and less inclusive, and have usually stopped or reversed the advance of rights and freedoms. Anti-immigrant sentiment typically increases, as does conflict between races and classes。

  所以,答案为A选项,确定的。即作者认为是有影响的,但是影响的最终结果,仍需等待。

  Income inequality usually falls during a recession, but it has not shrunk in this one,. Indeed, this period of economic weakness may reinforce class divides, and decrease opportunities to cross them--- especially for young people. The research of Till Von Wachter, the economist in Columbia University, suggests that not all people graduating into a recession see their life chances dimmed: those with degrees from elite universities catch up fairly quickly to where they otherwise would have been if they had graduated in better times; it is the masses beneath them that are left behind。

  所以结合上面的真题解析,我们可以知道,在阅读之时不要为相同但是却不同意义的选项所迷惑,原文才是检验真题的唯一途径!

  In the internet age, it is particularly easy to see the resentment that has always been hidden winthin American society. More difficult, in the moment , is discerning precisely how these lean times are affecting society’s character. In many respects, the U.S. was more socially tolerant entering this resession than at any time in its history, and a variety of national polls on social conflict since then have shown mixed results. We will have to wait and see exactly how these hard times will reshape our social fabric. But they certainly it, and all the more so the longer they extend。

  希望该文章能对各位同学的复习有所帮助。

  36.By saying “to find silver linings”(Line 1,Para.2)the author suggest that the jobless try to___。

  韩 苏

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