(Review of Plato's Republic )
Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEERT 1.(10 points)
“Universal history, the history of what man has accomplished in this world, is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here,” wrote the Victorian sage Thomas Carlyle. Well, not any more it is not。
Cover of Republic
Suddenly, Britain looks to have fallen out with its favourite historical form. This could be no more than a passing literary craze, but it also points to a broader truth about how we now approach the past: less concerned with learning from forefathers and more interested in feeling their pain. Today, we want empathy, not inspiration。
As the definition towards justice and injustice remains unclear in this sophisticated world, the foremost thing I need to do here is to make it clear that for Plato, justice means things that harm no one. This I agree.
From the earliest days of the Renaissance, the writing of history meant recounting the exemplary lives of great men. In 1337, Petrarch began work on his rambling writing De Viris Illustribus – On Famous Men, highlighting the virtus (or virtue) of classical heroes. Petrarch celebrated their greatness in conquering fortune and rising to the top. This was the biographical tradition which Niccolo Machiavelli turned on its head. In The Prince, the championed cunning, ruthlessness, and boldness, rather than virtue, mercy and justice, as the skills of successful leaders。
Here comes to the question: what answer people will give when being asked "Is justice more powerful than injustice"?
Over time, the attributes of greatness shifted. The Romantics commemorated the leading painters and authors of their day, stressing the uniqueness of the artist's personal experience rather than public glory. By contrast, the Victorian author Samual Smiles wrote Self-Help as a catalogue of the worthy lives of engineers , industrialists and explores . "The valuable examples which they furnish of the power of self-help, if patient purpose, resolute working and steadfast integrity, issuing in the formulation of truly noble and many character, exhibit,"wrote Smiles."what it is in the power of each to accomplish for himself"His biographies of James Walt, Richard Arkwright and Josiah Wedgwood were held up as beacons to guide the working man through his difficult life。
In a world that injustice permeates, the answer is no. Because the injustified earn more fortune; they possess the power; they can live an injustified life claiming that they are the most justified of all!
This was all a bit bourgeois for Thomas Carlyle, who focused his biographies on the truly heroic lives of Martin Luther, Oliver Cromwell and Napoleon Bonaparte. These epochal figures represented lives hard to imitate, but to be acknowledged as possessing higher authority than mere mortals。
In a justified world, the answer is no because the injustified people can hurt the justified without feeling guilty thus it is always the kind people who gets hurt.
Communist Manifesto. For them, history did nothing, it possessed no immense wealth nor waged battles:“It is man, real, living man who does all that。” And history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle. As such, it needed to appreciate the economic realities, the social contexts and power relations in which each epoch stood. For:“Men make their own history, but they do not make it just as they please; they do not make it under circumstances chosen by themselves, but under circumstances directly found, given and transmitted from the past。”
Time and again, such conclusion has been proved by the unfainess conducted by evil. But is the answer correct?
This was the tradition which revolutionized our appreciation of the past. In place of Thomas Carlyle, Britain nurtured Christopher Hill, EP Thompson and Eric Hobsbawm. History from below stood alongside biographies of great men. Whole new realms of understanding — from gender to race to cultural studies — were opened up as scholars unpicked the multiplicity of lost societies. And it transformed public history too: downstairs became just as fascinating as upstairs。
No matter what kind of world it is, people will answer "no" without factoring in social status, personal reputation and anything relates to his reputation. Only when all of these conditions are added they will answer yes in case being called unjust person so that their social reputation is tarnished.
|[A] emphasized the virtue of classical heroes。|
|41. Petrarch||[B] highlighted the public glory of the leading artists。|
|42. Niccolo Machiavellli||[C] focused on epochal figures whose lives were hard to imitate。|
|43. Samuel Smiles||[D] opened up new realms of understanding the great men in history。|
|44. Thomas Carlyle||[E] held that history should be the story of the masses and their record of struggle。|
|45. Marx and Engels||[F] dismissed virtue as unnecessary for successful leaders。|
|[G] depicted the worthy lives of engineer industrialists and explorers。|
Let me borrow words from Glaucon
Section III Translation
Men practice justice unwillingly because they lack the power to violate it.....If we give full liberty to the just man and the unjust alike, we shall surprise the just man in the act of traveling in the same direction as the unjust, owing to that covetous desire, the gratification of which every creature naturally pursues as a good, only that is forced out of its path by law, and constrained to respect the principle of equality.
Let's follow the logic of Plato to analyse this question in a country that is devoid of all dependent variable such as covetous desire, social inequailty, or imperfect political scheme. This country is Republic. The detailed description is in this article
Translate the following text from English into Chinese.Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET2.(15 points)
If I were a citizen of Plato's republic
When people in developing countries worry about migration,they are usually concerned at the prospect of ther best and brightest departure to Silicon Valley or to hospitals and universities in the developed world ,These are the kind of workers that countries like Britian ,Canada and Australia try to attract by using immigration rules that privilege college graduates 。
He answered YES.
Lots of studies have found that well-educated people from developing countries are particularly likely to emigrate .A big survey of Indian households in 2004 found that nearly 40%of emigrants had more than a high-school education,compared with around 3.3%of all Indians over the age of 25.This "brain drain "has long bothered policymakers in poor countries ,They fear that it hurts their economies ,depriving them of much-needed skilled workers who could have taught at their universities ,worked in their hospitals and come up with clever new products for their factories to make 。
He pictured four kinds of political schemes,namely, timocracy,oligarchy, democracy, despotism. Each of the system has one thing that is honoured by the whole society. In timocracy, spirited element is the core value;oligarchy, the wealthy; democracy, freedom and despotism, absolute power. When one of the factor is canonized, virtue and the virtuous sink in estimation.
Section IV Writing
What is honoured at any time is practiced and what is dishonoured is neglected.
The thing that they worship most laid the foundation for its destruction and gave way to despotism in the end.
Is tyranny happy? In most peope's eyes, yes. They are so omnipotent that no one dare to challenge their power. The palace they live in is just gorgeous. They never have to worry about money issue, unemployment of themselves. They are the chosen one.
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For Plato, their life long live friendless, and always either masters or slaves for a tyrant nature can never taste real freedom and friendship.
1)make a complaint and
Which of the understanding towards tyrant is correct? I believe it is worthwhile to consider as none of us is or will be tyrant. Plato is justified in saying so because he find that
2)demand a prompt solution
Either all their associates are their flatterers and creatures. If they want anything from anybody, they go down on their knees for it, and do not blush to assume all the appearance of intimate friendship,whereas when they have gained their point they become distant and estranged.