全国工商管理硕士研究生考试英语模拟试题,2

日期:2019-10-03编辑作者:4886a威尼斯城官网

  距离2014考研[微博]的日子越来越近,还不清楚新题型怎么做的小伙伴们快来看吧!考研新题型的做法不同于传统的阅读理解,并不需要很仔细的去阅读细节内容,文都教育提醒大家:只要掌握了这类题型的出题原则和解题策略,便可以轻松斩获10分!

Section I Use of English

  第一招:从意思上判断。

Directions:

  7选5的文章篇幅较长,其实并不需要每句都读,我们可以有选择的只读空格的前后句,提取这两句话的中心意思,然后根据意思的连贯性和逻辑性选取正确答案。那么,如果意思不太懂怎么办?

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D onANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)

  第二招:锁定线索词。

The idea that some groups of people may be more intelligent than others is one of those hypotheses that dare not speak its name. But Gregory Cochran is to say it anyway. He is that bird, a scientist who works independently any institution. He helped popularize the idea that some diseases not thought to have a bacterial cause were actually infections, which aroused much controversy when it was first suggested。

  新题型很重要的一点就是:要保持对线索词的敏感。第一,阅读中要特别注意名词(或同类事物的词语)和动词(或同义和近义词),看到就随手标出,方便定位,节省时间!第二,要特别重视代词的指代,确定句子的主体对象。第三,注意数词和表示时间、年代的词。以2013年的新题型为例:

he, however, might tremble at the of what he is about to do. Together with another two scientists, he is publishing a paper which not only that one group of humanity is more intelligent than the others, but explains the process that has brought this about. The group in are a particular people originated from central Europe. The process is natural selection。

  【指代线索解题】

This group generally do well in IQ test, 12-15 points above the value of 100, and have contributed to the intellectual and cultural life of the West, as the of their elites, including several world-renowned scientists, . They also suffer more often than most people from a number of nasty genetic diseases, such as breast cancer. These facts, , have previously been thought unrelated. The former has been to social effects, such as a strong tradition of education. The latter was seen as a (an) of genetic isolation. Dr. Cochran suggests that the intelligence and diseases are intimately . His argument is that the unusual history of these people has them to unique evolutionary pressures that have resulted in this state of affairs。

  (42)______________. This is a shame—the community should be grasping the opportunity to raise its influence in the real world. To paraphrase the great social scientist Joseph Schumpeter: there is no radical innovation without creative destruction 。

1.[A] selected[B] prepared[C] obliged[D] pleased

  [F] Despite these factors , many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems. And in Europe, some are up in arms over a proposal to drop a specific funding category for social-science research and to integrate it within cross-cutting topics of sustainable development。

2.[A] unique[B] particular[C] special[D] rare

  解析:this指代前文的内容,shame 意为“羞耻,憾事”,它决定所填的句子应该有否定的意义。通过浏览选项,只有F符合要求,reluctant to tackle such problems表示“不愿去解决这样的问题”。

3.[A] of[B] with[C] in[D] against

  【数字线索解题】

4.[A] subsequently[B] presently[C] previously[D] lately

  The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding. (44)____________. This is an adequate amount so long as it is aimed in the right direction. Social scientists who complain about a lack of funding should not expect more in today’s economic climate。
[G] During the late 1990s, national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a percentage of all research and development funds—including government, higher education, non-profit and corporate —varied from around 4% to 25%; in most European nations, it is about 15%。

5.[A] Only[B] So[C] Even[D] Hence

  解析:amount(数量,总额)决定了下面要填的句子肯定含有数字,而funding(资金,经费)则对应了选项G中的spending(支出,花费)。

6.[A] thought[B] sight[C] cost[D] risk

  第三招:查找关联词。

7.[A] advises[B] suggests[C] protests[D] objects

  为了使文章逻辑更加清楚和连贯,英语的段落和句子之间经常会用关联词表示衔接和过渡。可以通过查找文章中和选项中标志逻辑关系的关联词来确定选项。例如:看到表示并列或递进关系的关联词,表明前后句义具有同指性;看到表示转折或让步关系的关联词表明前后句义成反向关系。

8.[A] progress[B] fact[C] need[D] question

  【关联词线索解题】

9.[A] attaining[B] scoring[C] reaching[D] calculating

  Today ,the social sciences are largely focused on disciplinary problems and internal scholarly debates,rather than on topics with external impact. Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords “environmental changed” or “climate change” have increased rapidlysince 2004. (43)_______________。

10.[A] normal[B] common[C] mean[D] total

  [B] However, the numbers are still small: in 2010,about 1,600 of the 100,000 social-sciences papers published globally included one of these Keywords。

11.[A] unconsciously[B] disproportionately

  解析:前一句的主干说the number of papers ...... have increased rapidly, 那么下一句应该还会继续围绕number这个中心展开,要么考查顺向关系,要么考查逆向关系,如果没有关系性就没有出题的必要了!显然B选项However, the numbers are still small与之对应,构成转折关系。大意为:虽然论文的数量已经快速的增长,但是这个数量仍然很小。

[C] indefinitely[D] unaccountably

  总之,“快准狠”解决新题型的关键就在于“找词眼”!希望大家好好利用线索词,老师预祝2014考生顺利通关,金榜题名!

12.[A] missions[B] fortunes[C] interests[D] careers

13.[A] affirm[B] witness[C] observe[D] approve

14.[A] moreover[B] therefore[C] however[D] meanwhile

15.[A] given up[B] got over[C] carried on[D] put down

16.[A] assessing[B] supervising[C] administering[D] valuing

17.[A] development[B] origin[C] consequence[D] instrument

18.[A] linked[B] integrated[C] woven[D] combined

19.[A] limited[B] subjected[C] converted[D] directed

20.[A] paradoxical[B] incompatible[C] inevitable[D] continuous

Section Ⅱ Reading comprehension (50 points)

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four passages. Answer the questions below each passage by choosing A, B, C and D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)

Text1

The majority of successful senior managers do not closely follow the classical rational model of first clarifying goals, assessing the problem, formulating options, estimating likelihoods of success, making a decision, and only then taking action to implement the decision. Rather, in their day-by-day tactical maneuvers, these senior executives rely on what is vaguely termed intuition to manage a network of interrelated problems that require them to deal with ambiguity, inconsistency, novelty, and surprise; and to integrate action into the process of thinking。

Generations of writers on management have recognized that some practicing managers rely heavily on intuition. In general, however, such writers display a poor grasp of what intuition is. Some see it as the opposite of rationality; others view it as an excuse for capriciousness。

Isenberg's recent research on the cognitive processes of senior managers reveals that managers' intuition is neither of these. Rather, senior managers use intuition in at least five distinct ways. First, they intuitively sense when a problem exists. Second, managers rely on intuition to perform well-learned behavior patterns rapidly. This intuition is not arbitrary or irrational, but is based on years of painstaking practice and hands-on experience that build skills. A third function of intuition is to synthesize isolated bits of data and practice into an integrated picture, often in an Aha! experience. Fourth, some managers use intuition as a check on the results of more rational analysis. Most senior executives are familiar with the formal decision analysis models and tools, and those who use such systematic methods for reaching decisions are occasionally leery of solutions suggested by these methods which run counter to their sense of the correct course of action. Finally, managers can use intuition to bypass in-depth analysis and move rapidly to engender a plausible solution. Used in this way, intuition is an almost instantaneous cognitive process in which a manager recognizes familiar patterns。

One of the implications of the intuitive style of executive management is that thinking is inseparable from acting. Since managers often know what is right before they can analyze and explain it, they frequently act first and explain later. Analysis is inextricably tied to action in thinking/acting cycles, in which managers develop thoughts about their companies and organizations not by analyzing a problematic situation and then acting, but by acting and analyzing in close concert。

Given the great uncertainty of many of the management issues that they face, senior managers often instigate a course of action simply to learn more about an issue. They then use the results of the action to develop a more complete understanding of the issue. One implication of thinking/acting cycles is that action is often part of defining the problem, not just of implementing the solution。

  1. According to the text, senior managers use intuition in all of the following ways EXCEPT to

[A] speed up of the creation of a solution to a problem。

[B] identify a problem。

[C] bring together disparate facts。

[D] stipulate clear goals。

  1. The text suggests which of the following about the writers on management mentioned in line 1, paragraph 2?

[A] They have criticized managers for not following the classical rational model of decision analysis。

[B] They have not based their analyses on a sufficiently large sample of actual managers。

[C] They have relied in drawing their conclusions on what managers say rather than on what managers do。

[D] They have misunderstood how managers use intuition in making business decisions。

  1. It can be inferred from the text that which of the following would most probably be one major difference in behavior between Manager X, who uses intuition to reach decisions, and Manager Y, who uses only formal decision analysis?

[A] Manager X analyzes first and then acts; Manager Y does not。

[B] Manager X checks possible solutions to a problem by systematic analysis; Manager Y does not。

[C] Manager X takes action in order to arrive at the solution to a problem; Manager Y does not。

[D] Manager Y draws on years of hands-on experience in creating a solution to a problem; Manager X does not。

  1. The text provides support for which of the following statements?

[A] Managers who rely on intuition are more successful than those who rely on formal decision analysis。

[B] Managers cannot justify their intuitive decisions。

[C] Managers'' intuition works contrary to their rational and analytical skills。

[D] Intuition enables managers to employ their practical experience more efficiently。

  1. Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the text?

[A] An assertion is made and a specific supporting example is given。

[B] A conventional model is dismissed and an alternative introduced。

[C] The results of recent research are introduced and summarized。

[D] Two opposing points of view are presented and evaluated。

Text2

Bernard Bailyn has recently reinterpreted the early history of the United States by applying new social research findings on the experiences of European migrants. In his reinterpretation, migration becomes the organizing principle for rewriting the history of pre-industrial North America. His approach rests on four separate propositions。

The first of these asserts that residents of early modern England moved regularly about their countryside; migrating to the New World was simply a natural spillover. Although at first the colonies held little positive attraction for the English — they would rather have stayed home — by the eighteenth century people increasingly migrated to America because they regarded it as the land of opportunity. Secondly, Bailyn holds that, contrary to the notion that used to flourish in America history textbooks, there was never a typical New World community. For example, the economic and demographic character of early New England towns varied considerably。

Bailyn's third proposition suggest two general patterns prevailing among the many thousands of migrants: one group came as indentured servants, another came to acquire land. Surprisingly, Bailyn suggests that those who recruited indentured servants were the driving forces of transatlantic migration. These colonial entrepreneurs helped determine the social character of people who came to pre-industrial North America. At first, thousands of unskilled laborers were recruited; by the 1730's, however, American employers demanded skilled artisans。

Finally, Bailyn argues that the colonies were a half-civilized hinterland of the European culture system. He is undoubtedly correct to insist that the colonies were part of an Anglo-American empire. But to divide the empire into English core and colonial periphery, as Bailyn does, devalues the achievements of colonial culture. It is true, as Bailyn claims, that high culture in the colonies never matched that in England. But what of seventeenth-century New England, where the settlers created effective laws, built a distinguished university, and published books? Bailyn might respond that New England was exceptional. However, the ideas and institutions developed by New England Puritans had powerful effects on North American culture。

Although Bailyn goes on to apply his approach to some thousands of indentured servants who migrated just prior to the revolution, he fails to link their experience with the political development of the United States. Evidence presented in his work suggests how we might make such a connection. These indentured servants were treated as slaves for the period during which they had sold their time to American employers. It is not surprising that as soon as they served their time they passed up good wages in the cities and headed west to ensure their personal independence by acquiring land. Thus, it is in the west that a peculiarly American political culture began, among colonists who were suspicious of authority and intensely anti-aristocratic。

  1. Which of the following statements about migrants to colonial North America is supported by information in the text?

[A] A larger percentage of migrants to colonial North America came as indentured servants than as free agents interested in acquiring land。

[B] Migrants who came to the colonies as indentured servants were more successful at making a livelihood than were farmers and artisans。

[C] Migrants to colonial North America were more successful at acquiring their own land during the eighteenth century than during the seventeenth century。

[D] By the 1730's,migrants already skilled in a trade were in more demand by American employers than were unskilled laborers。

  1. The author of the text states that Bailyn failed to

[A] give sufficient emphasis to the cultural and political interdependence of the colonies and England。

[B] describe carefully how migrants of different ethnic backgrounds preserved their culture in the United States。

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