设想语气,同等学力考研法语语法复习资料

日期:2019-07-24编辑作者:4886a威尼斯城官网

  虚拟语气的用法(一)

虚拟语气:虚拟语气用来表达不可能或难以实现的愿望,与事实相反的假设,通常分为基本的三种形式。

  虚拟语气是一种动词形式,表示说话人的一种愿望,假设,怀疑,猜测,建议等含义,虚拟语气所表示的含义不是客观存在的事实。

  1. 与现在事实相反的虚拟:

  If I were you, I'd take them away. 如果我是你的话,我就会带走他们。

If did / were ……, …… would

  If I had met Li Hua, I could had told him. 如果我碰见了李华,我就告诉他了。

should

  If I had time. I could come to help you. 如果我有时间,我会来帮助你的。

could do (动词原形)

  He suggested that our class should be divided into five groups. 他建议说我们的班应该分成五个小组。

might

  He speaks to us as if he had been there. 他给我们讲的好象他去过那儿。

If I were you, I would go abroad at once. (I am not you.)

  虚拟语气的用法:

If he knew it now, he could help me. (He doesn't know it now.)

  一. 虚拟语气用在简单句中,表示祝愿,命令。

  1. 与过去事实相反的虚拟:

  May you be happy. 祝你幸福。

If had done ……, …… would (might) have done ……

  May you have a good time. 祝愿你玩的痛快。

If I had known your telephone number yesterday, I would have phoned you.

  May the friendship between us last long. 祝愿我们的友情天长地久。

(I didn't know your telephone number.)

  Have a good journey! 祝愿你旅途愉快!

If you had come here a littleearlier just now, you might have met her.

  You go out! 你出去!

(You didn't come here earlier.)

  二. 虚拟语气用在宾语从句中。

  1. 与将来事实相反的虚拟:

  动词 suggest, order, insist, propose, require, request, recommend, command, desire,等词后面的宾语从句表示的是一种虚拟语气,宾语从句中的动词动作表示的只是一种愿望、要求。

(1) If should v, …… would v.

  He insisted that all of us should be there on time by any means.

(可能性很小)(译作“万一”)

  他坚持要我们大家想尽办法按时去那儿。

If it should rain tomorrow, you could stay at home.

  动词 demand, suggest, order, insist, propose, require, request, recommend, command, desire,等后面的从句中,"should" 可以省略。

If I should fail, what should Ido?

  The teacher suggested that we (should) clean the blackboard after class.

(2) If did / were to v ……, would v.

  老师建议我们课后把黑板擦了。

(完全不可能)

  He ordered that the students wash the clothes every week by themselves.

If the sun were to rise in the west, I would lend you the money.

  他要求学生每周都要自己洗衣服。

If you finished it in 3 minutes, I would give you my car.

  He asked that he be given an opportunity to try.

  1. 金牌特殊重点:!

  他要求给他一个试试的机会。

[简单联想记忆]:

  三. 虚拟语气用在主语从句中。

● 下列动词后的“宾语从句”中需要用虚拟形式,即should 动词原形,shoud在美国英语中要省略(TOEFL语法考点)。此类常见的动词有

  在句型 "It is important (necessary, strange, natural,desired, requested, ordered, 等) that .... " 中,that 后面的从句中的谓语动词用: should 动词原形

:order, ask, decide, demand, require, recommend, suggest(建议)insist(坚决要求),advise, etc.

  It's necessary that we should have a walk now.

例句:He suggested that we (should) help them with English.

  我们有必要出去散散步。

The teacher ordered that the homework (should) be finished within half an hour.

  It's natural that she should do so. 她这样做是很自然的。

● 下列名词后的同位语从句中要用“should 动词原形”(should可省去)的虚拟。

  It's important that we should take good care of the patient.

suggestion, order, request, demand, importance, proposal.

  重要的是我们要照顾好病人。

He made a suggestion that we (should) have a fancy dress party.

  It is desired that we (should) get everything ready by tonight.

I think it is a thing of importance that it (should) be done soon.

  四. 虚拟语气在表语从句和同位语从句中

● It is / was important / necessary / natural / essential / advisable / strange / surprising, ect. that 主语 should v.

  suggestion, motion, proposal, order, recommendation, plan, idea, 等后面的表语从句和同位语从句。

It is strange that you should say such a thing.

  My suggestion is that we (should) send a few people to help the other group.

It was important that you should tell me all the information.

  我的建议是我们派几个人去帮相别的小组。

● wish后的宾语从句中,as if 后的状语从句中,须用下列的虚拟形式:

  His sole requirement is (was) that the system be adjusted.

主 wish (that) 主 did / were(指现在)

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