万学海文

日期:2019-07-31编辑作者:4886a威尼斯城官网

  第二部分 分题型讲解

It should be obvious that cetaceans-whales, porpoises, and dolphins-are mammals. They breathe through lungs, not through gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke1 and blowhole2 cannot disguise their affinities with land dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses, whose limbs are functional both on land and at sea), it is not easy to envision what the first whales looked like. Extinct but already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record. How was the gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged? Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate, or transitional, between land mammals and cetaceans.

  第一章 选择搭配题

Very exciting discoveries have finally allowed scientists to reconstruct the most likely origins of cetaceans. In 1979, a team looking for fossils in northern Pakistan found what proved to be the oldest fossil whale. The fossil was officially named Pakicetus in honor of the country where the discovery was made. Pakicetus was found embedded in rocks formed from river deposits that were 52 million years old. The river that formed these deposits was actually not far from an ancient ocean known as the Tethys Sea.

  一、大纲要求

The fossil consists of a complete skull of an archaeocyte, an extinct group of ancestors of modern cetaceans. Although limited to a skull, the Pakicetus fossil provides precious details on the origins of cetaceans. The skull is cetacean-like but its jawbones lack the enlarged space that is filled with fat or oil and used for receiving underwater sound in modern whales. Pakicetus probably detected sound through the ear opening as in land mammals. The skull also lacks a blowhole, another cetacean adaptation for diving. Other features, however, show experts that Pakicetus is a transitional form between a group of extinct flesh-eating mammals, the mesonychids, and cetaceans. It has been suggested that Pakicetus fed on fish in shallow water and was not yet adapted for life in the open ocean. It probably bred and gave birth on land.

  本题形原文约600词,其中有5段空白处——空白处的位置可能在段首、段落中间、段末,一般情况下不会是文章的第一句或最后一句,但是这个也不是绝对的。选项部分为7段文字,每段可能是一个句子,可能是两三个句子,也有可能是完整的段落。其中5段分属于主干部分的空白处。要求考生依据自己对文章的理解从选项中选择5段文字放回文章中相应的5段空白处。

Another major discovery was made in Egypt in 1989. Several skeletons of another early whale, Basilosaurus, were found in sediments left by the Tethys Sea and now exposed in the Sahara desert. This whale lived around 40 million years ago, 12 million years after Pakicetus. Many incomplete skeletons were found but they included, for the first time in an archaeocyte, a complete hind leg that features a foot with three tiny toes. Such legs would have been far too small to have supported the 50-foot-long Basilosaurus on land. Basilosaurus was undoubtedly a fully marine whale with possibly nonfunctional, or vestigial, hind legs.

  二、解题步骤

An even more exciting find was reported in 1994, also from Pakistan. The now extinct whale Ambulocetus natans ("the walking whale that swam") lived in the Tethys Sea 49 million years ago. It lived around 3 million years after Pakicetus but 9 million before Basilosaurus. The fossil luckily includes a good portion of the hind legs. The legs were strong and ended in long feet very much like those of a modern pinniped. The legs were certainly functional both on land and at sea. The whale retained a tail and lacked a fluke, the major means of locomotion in modern cetaceans. The structure of the backbone shows, however, that Ambulocetus swam like modern whales by moving the rear portion of its body up and down, even though a fluke was missing. The large hind legs were used for propulsion in water. On land, where it probably bred and gave birth, Ambulocetus may have moved around very much like a modern sea lion. It was undoubtedly a whale that linked life on land with life at sea.

  A.第一步:通读全文,尤其是首末段,迅速得知文章的主旨大意;

Fluke: the two parts that constitute the large triangular tail of a whale

  B.第二步:通读选项,在每个选项下边用笔标记本选项的大致中文意思,以做到心中有数,至少应该能知道可以供考生选择的选项的意思范围,并且在很短的时间里找到考生想找到的选项;

"Blowhole: a hole in the top of the head used for breathing

  C.第三步:回到文章中的空白处,分析空白处的上下文,结合前面的解题方法得出需要的选项;

  D.第四步:把自己选择的选项带入原文,检测是否文章前后连贯,检测所选的选项是否和文章的主旨大意相吻合

  三、解题技巧

  A.“就近原则”,在文章空白处的上下文中寻找解题的线索;

  B.“时间原则”,出现时间、年代等词语时,要注意文章中的时间和选项中的时间的对应关系;

  C.“代词原则”,指示代词,因为是指代前面的内容,所以一般不能作为段落的开头;

  D.“相近原则”,如果有两个选项非常的相似,那么其中一个往往是正确答案;

  E.“重复原则”,如果一个选项中的单词与文章中的单词重复比较多或意思相近的比较多,那么这个选项往往就是正确答案;

  F.“排除原则”:做7选5填空的时候,建议大家最好使用排除原则,由易到难地去解题。

  第二章 段落排序题

  一、大纲要求

  该题型是一篇长度约500~600字的文章,但各段落的原有顺序已被打乱。要求考生根据文章内容和结构将所列段落(7~8段)重新排序,其中2~3个段落的位置已给出。此题型的长度长于A节中的文章,阅读量大一些。并且各段落没有按顺序排列,这给阅读带来了很大的障碍。

  该题型要求考生从整体上把握文章,掌握语篇阅读的基本方法。了解文章的基本结构模式,特别是要熟悉说明文议论文普遍采用的三段论结构。同时,要对文章的逻辑性、连贯性、一致性等语段特征要熟练掌握

  二、解题步骤

  A. 第一步:阅读已经固定的段落。如果固定段落是首末段,那么通过阅读首末段就可以得知整个文章的主旨大意,还要注意将已经确定的两个选项从卷子上划去,防止引起不必要的混乱;如果固定段落没有首段,那么就要阅读选项后选出首段,然后结合已知段落来确定全文大意和大致结构。

  B.第二步: 阅读选项,并用笔在每个选项下方标注本选项的中文意思(大概意思就可以),从而明确整个文章的大致内容,了解各个选项之间的内在逻辑关系;

  C.第三步:确定语篇模式,排列各个选项的顺序;

  D.第四步:把自己已经选好的顺序带进文章里检查答案是否合理。

  三、解题技巧

  A.“同一原则”:因为排序题是5选5,所以如果五道题目全部选择同一个答案的话,那么你至少可以做对一道,获得2分。当然,这个方法只建议大家在时间不够或自己根本就看不懂文章不知道如何解答的情况下使用;

  B.“排除原则”: 这种题目往往只需要做对四个就可以了,最后一个答案不用做就水到渠成;

  C.“局部同一原则”:也就是说,当考生在5个题目中只有1个或2个或3个确定的情况下,就把剩余的所有题目均选同一个选项,这样至少可以选对一道题。否则极有可能剩余的题目全部猜错,考研的每一分都相当宝贵,不要浪费;

  D.“无序原则”:因为考生经常会遇到前面的题目不会做的情况,所以建议大家不用按照题目的顺序答题。

  第三章 主旨大意题

  一、大纲要求

  在一篇长度约500词的文章前有6个概括句或小标题。这些标题分别是对文章某一部分的概括。要求考生根据文章内容,从这6个选项中选出最恰当的5个标题填入文章的空白处。

  二、解题步骤

  A.先看选项,从选项中就可以推断出相关段落大致的内容是关于什么的。

  B.读所考段落,抓住每段主题句和核心词汇。正确答案经常是主题句的改写。

  C.将从段落中提炼出的主题句和选项相对照,选出答案。

  三、解题技巧

  把握“关键词原则”:阅读整个段落,标出反复出现的词,及其同义词和近义词

  第四章 论据例子题

  一、大纲要求

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