Section ⅡReading Comprehension
Section ⅡReading Comprehension
Read the following four texts.Answer the questions below each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A，B，C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
Can computer reason? Reasoning requires the individual to take a given set of facts and draw correct conclusions. Unfortunately, errors frequently occur, and we are not talking about simple carelessness as occurs when two numbers are incorrectly added, nor do we mean errors resulting from simple forgetfulness. Rather, we have in mind errors of a logical nature—those resulting from faulty reasoning. Now, or at least soon, computers will be capable of errorfree logical reasoning in a variety of areas. The key to avoiding errors is to use a computer program that relies on the recent research in the field of automated theorem proving. AURA(Automated Reasoning Assistant) is the program that best exemplifies this use of the computer.
Recently, the right of public personalities to direct and profit from all commercial exploitations of their fame has gained widespread acceptance. Recognition of this “right of publicity,” however, has raised difficult questions concerning the proper scope and duration of the right as well as its relationship to free speech and free trade interests. Often, the “type” of personality, be it an entertainer, politician, or athlete, also weighs on this decision-making process.
AURA solves a program by drawing conclusions from a given set of facts about the problem. The program reaches logical conclusions flawlessly as it uses various types of reasoning and solves almost all problems by using sophisticated techniques to find a contradiction.
The right of publicity protects economic interests of celebrities in their own fame by allowing them to control and profit from the publicity values which they have created. Before courts recognized this right, celebrities’ primary protection against the unauthorized commercial appropriation of their names or likenesses was a suit for invasion of privacy. Privacy law, however, proved to be an inadequate response to the legal questions presented by celebrities seeking to protect their economic interest in fame. Whereas privacy law protects a person’s right to be left alone, publicity law proceeds from adverse assumptions. Celebrities do not object to public attention—they thrive on it. However, they seek to benefit from any commercial use of their popularity.
One generally starts with a set of assumptions and adds a statement that the goal is unreachable. For example, if the problem is to test a safety system that automatically shuts down a nuclear reactor when instruments indicate a problem, AURA is told that the system will not shut the reactor down under those circumstances. If AURA finds a contradiction between the statement and the systems design assumptions, then this aspect of the reactors design has been proved satisfactory. This strategy lets AURA concentrate on the problem at hand and avoid the many fruitless steps required to explore the entire theory underlying the problem.
A celebrity’s public image has many aspects, each of which may be appropriated for a variety of purposes. Plaintiffs(persons bringing a suit) have sought to protect various attributes including: name, likeness, a particular routine or act, characters made famous by their celebrity, unique style, and biographical information. In deciding whether the right of publicity applies to particular attribute, courts consider underlying legal and policy goals.
The chief use for AURA at this time is for electronic circuit design validation, but a number of other uses will arise. For example, there already exist “expert systems” that are specialpurpose programs designed to automate reasoning in a specific area such as medical diagnosis. These expert systems continue to improve and have an indefinite life span. Moreover, they can be duplicated for pennies. A human who can expertly predict where to drill for oil is in great demand. A program that can predict equally well would be invaluable and could be duplicated any number of times.
Two goals support recognition of the right of publicity: the promotion of creative endeavor and prevention of unjust enrichment through the theft of goodwill. Courts determine the scope of publicity rights by balancing these policies against offsetting First Amendment and free trade interests. Recognizing the celebrity’s ability to control the exercise of some personal attribute may limit the “speech” of would-be appropriators and give the celebrity a commercial monopoly. Thus, the value of promoting creativity and preventing unjust enrichment must outweigh negative constitutional and commercial repercussions(effects) before courts extend the right of publicity to any particular attribute.
Will the computer replace the human being? It seems likely that computer programs will reproduce more clever programs and more efficient components. Reasoning programs will also analyze their own progress, learn from their attempts to solve a problem. Such programs will assist, rather than replace, humans. Reasoning assistants will enable human minds to turn to deeper and far more complex ideas, which will be partially formulated and then checked for reasoning flaws by a reasoning program. Many errors will be avoided.21. The author suggests in Par.1 that humans are
The value of a publicity right in a particular attribute depends largely on the length of time such a right is recognized and protected by the law. Courts disagree on whether publicity rights survive the death of their creators. Some courts advocate unconditional devisability. They emphasize that the ability to control exploitation of fame is a property right, carrying all the characteristics of the title. Other courts conclude that the right of publicity terminates at the celebritys death. These courts fear that recognizing postmortem(after-death) publicity rights would negatively affect free speech and free trade.
[A] liable to irrational thinking.[B] apt to err in simple counting.
The right of publicity, especially in the cases of well-known politicians and statesmen, often conflicts with First Amendment interests and thus should be defined with care and precision.
[C] prone to memory dysfunction.[D] subject to unwitting reasoning.
21. According to the author, privacy laws are inadequate for celebrities because
22. The way AURA works in is to
［A］ individuals lose privacy rights by becoming public figures.
[A] explore the faults in designing.[B] discover the bugs in a program.
［B］ stars wish to create higher value by keeping from the public.
[C] state against the set suppositions.[D] make assumptions by reasoning.
［C］ the unauthorized use of celebrities’images is beyond remedy.
23. All of the following are mentioned as areas for AURA EXCEPT
［D］ economic issues inherent in their fame are ignored by the laws.
[A] electronic engineering.[B] detection of fossil fuels.
22. The text implies that the judicial response to “right of publicity” issues has been
[C] identification of diseases.[D] complicated mental logic.
［A］ inconclusive. ［B］ impractical.
24. All of the following are advantages of expert programs EXCEPT
［C］ justifiable. ［D］ significant.
[A] they can be duplicated infinitely.[B] they are featured by selfanalysis.
23. We learn that a feature of “devisability”(Par.5) is the ability to be
[C] they may be enriched in contents.[D] they are reproduced almost free.
［A］ split into diverse legal entities.
25. The best title for the text seems to be
［B］ assigned by the celebrity’s will.
[A] Practical Uses of Computers.[B] Suggested Applications for AURA.
［C］ structured in several equal shares.
[C] The Technical Perfection of AURA.[D] Computer Aid to Human Reasoning.
［D］ traded with the owner’s permission.
24. Which of the following would most reasonably call upon the “right of publicity”?
Half the worlds population will be speaking or learning English by 2015,researchers say.Two billion people are expected to start learning English within a decade and three billion will speak it,says a British Council estimate.
［A］ A famous athlete plans to design and market a line of sportswear.
Other languages,such as French,risk becoming the casualties of this “linguistic globalization”.But the boom will be over by 2050 and the Englishlanguage teaching industry will have become a victim of its own success,says David Graddol,author of the report,The Future of English.
［B］ The work of a celebrated screen actor is re-edited after his death.
Mr.Graddols research was based on a computer model developed to estimate demand for Englishlanguage teaching around the world.The lecturer,who has worked in education and language studies at the Open University for the past 25 years,said the model charted likely student numbers through to 2050.
［C］ A portion of a professor’s book is cited in a student’s paper.
It was compiled by looking at various estimates from the United Nations Education,Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco) on education provision,demographic projections,government education policies and international student mobility figures.The impact of educational innovations and other developments affecting the world population including the Chinese governments policy of one baby per family were also factored in.
［D］ The image of a TV host is used in an ad campaign for a drug.
Based on its findings,Mr.Graddol has predicted that the world is about to be hit by a tidal wave of English.“Many governments,especially in countries which have relatively recently gained independence,are introducing the teaching of English under a utilitarian banner.”
25. Which of the following statements best summarizes the chief ideas of the text?
“But English predominates in the business world,and for such countries to be able to compete for work,including lucrative (profitable) outsourcing contracts,English is being pushed heavily from kindergarten on.”
［A］ Publicity law is an appropriate legal remedy for public figures.
The potential bonanza (source of wealth) on offer from outsourcing means even maths and science are being taught in English at secondary schools in Malaysia.But demand for English teaching would drop as children progress through academia,and more universities across the world choose to teach in the language.
［B］ Approaches to publicity law cases contradict free trade interests.
Mr.Graddol also estimated that the boom would be over by 2050.“Englishlanguage students will be down from two billion to 500 million then,”he said,“Increasingly,as English spread across the globe,more people will become bilingual,even multilingual and such skills are highly prized in business.But Britain has not got the best reputation for learning other languages.”
［C］ The legal issues about the right of publicity are unresolved fully.
The report also showed that English was not the only language spreading,and the world,far from being dominated by English,was to become more multilingual.Mr.Graddol said,“Chinese,Arabic and Spanish are all popular,and likely to be languages of the future.”26. It is estimated that in a decade English will be
［D］ The promotion of creative endeavor justifies the right of publicity.
［A］ actively studied by over 200 million people.
［B］ freely spoken by global English learners.
Science-fiction movies can serve as myths about the future and thus give some assurance about it. Whether the film is 2001 or Star Wars，such movies tell about progress that will expand man’s powers and his experiences beyond anything now believed possible，while they assure us that all these advances will not wipe out man or life as we now know it. Thus one great anxiety about the future—that it will have no place for us as we now are—is alleviated by such myths. They also promise that even in the most distant future，and despite the progress that will have occurred in the material world，man’s basic concerns will be the same，and the struggle of good against evil—the central moral problem of our time—will not have lost its importance..
［C］ popular with over 80% of world inhabitants.
Past and future are the lasting dimensions of our lives: the present is but a brief moment. So these visions about the future also contain our past; in Star Wars，battles are fought around issues that also motivated man in the past. Thus，any vision about the future is really based on visions of the past，because that is all we can know for certain.
［D］ really mastered by 50% of people worldwide.
As our religious myths about the future never went beyond Judgment Day，so our modern myths about the future cannot go beyond the search for life’s deeper meaning. The reason is that only as long as the choice between good and evil remains man’s supreme moral problem does life retain that special dignity that derives from our ability to choose between the two. A world in which this conflict has been permanently resolved eliminates man as we know him. It might be a universe peopled by angels，but it has no place for man.
27. According to the text,“linguistic globalization” will
The moving picture is a visual art，based on sight. Speaking to our vision，it ought to provide us with the visions enabling us to live the good life; it ought to give us insight into ourselves. About a hundred years ago，Tolstoy wrote,“Art is a human activity having for its purpose the transmission to others of the highest and best feelings to which men have risen.” Later，Robert Frost defined poetry as “beginning in delight and ending in wisdom.” Thus it might be said that the state of the art of the moving image can be assessed by the degree to which it meets the mythopoetic task of giving us myths suitable to live by in our time—visions that transmit to us the highest and best feelings to which men have risen—and by how well the moving images give us that delight which leads to wisdom. Let us hope that the art of the moving image, this most genuine American art，will soon meet the challenge of becoming truly the great art of our age.
［A］ eliminate French from the globe.
26. In the author’s view，science-fiction movies
［B］ defeat other European languages.
［A］ assure us of the scientific miracles created.
［C］ fail all languages except English.
［B］ predict likely advances in human experiences.
［D］ make English the biggest winner.
［C］ offer invented stories concerning man’s fate.
28. David Graddol predicts that the thriving period of English will
［D］ signify human powers to a fantastic extent.
［A］ terminate within half a century.
27. In science-fiction movies,man can find
［B］ climax in the middle of the century.
［A］ fantasies that may relieve his anxiety for future existence.
［C］ endure for no less than five decades.
［B］ forecasts that his domination will be extended indefinitely.
［D］ quit till the beginning of the 2050s.
［C］ promises that his swelling demands will be fully satisfied.
29. The report “The Future of English” factored in all of the following EXCEPT
［D］ assurances that confirm the importance of moral principles.
［A］ the educational condition and policy.
28. The movies such as Star Wars
［B］ the directions and designs of Unesco.
［A］ fail to reflect contemporary problems for their transience.
［C］ the statistics about population.
［B］ fail to free their subjects from issues of man’s concerns.
［D］ the movements of overseas students.
［C］ succeed in depicting magic scenes irrelevant to the past.
30. The writer of the report deems that outsourcing is to
［D］ succeed in offering imaginary visions irrespective of reality.
［A］ result in the increase of English subjects.
29. The theme of modern myths could be drastically changed
［B］ lead to the drop of interest in English study.
［A］ only if the struggle for good life were fully discarded.
［C］ account for the further spread of English.
［B］ if only the conflict between good and evil had ceased.
［D］ bring about transition in college curricula.
［C］ on condition that man as he is now became extinct.
［D］ provided that average people were converted to angels.
In both developed and developing nations, governments finance, produce, and distribute various goods and services. In recent years, the range of goods provided by the government has extended broadly, including many goods that do not meet the economic purists definition of “public goods”. As the size of the public sector has increased steadily, there has been a growing concern about the effectiveness of the public sectors performance as producer.
30. The quotes from Tolstoy are used to
Critics argue that the public provision of certain goods is inefficient and have proposed that the private sector should replace many current public sector activities, that is, these services should be privatized. Since 1980s, greater privatization efforts have been pursued in the United States.
［A］ reinforce the author’s account about visual art.
Concurrent with this trend has been a strong endorsement(support) by international bilateral donor(aid) agencies for heavier reliance on the private sector in developing countries. The underlying claim is that the private sector can improve the quality of outputs and deliver goods more quickly and less expensively than the public sector in these countries.
［B］ provide fresh points about the moving picture.
This claim, however, has mixed theoretical support and little empirical verification in the Third World. The political, institutional, and economic environments of developing nations are markedly different from those of developed countries. It is not clear that the theories and empirical evidence that claim to justify privatization in developed countries are applicable to developing nations. Often policy makers in developing nations do not have sufficient information to design effective policy shifts to increase efficiency of providing goods through private initiatives. Additionally, there is a lack of basic understanding about what policy variables need to be altered to attain desired outcomes of privatization in developing countries.
［C］ define the basic characteristics of art activities.
One study of privatization in Honduras examined the policy shift from “direct administration” to “contracting out” for three construction activities: urban upgrading for housing projects, rural primary schools, and rural roads. It tested key hypotheses applying to the effectiveness of privatization, focusing on three aspects: cost, time, and quality.
［D］ describe the requirements for the art transmission.
The main finding was that contracting out in Honduras did not lead to the common expectations of its proponents because institutional barriers and limited competitiveness in the marketplace have prevented private contractors from improving quality and reducing the time and cost required for construction.
Privatization in developing countries cannot produce goods and services efficiently without substantial reform in the market and regulatory procedures. Policy makers interested in privatization as a policy measure should consider carefully the multiple objectives at the national level.31. It can be inferred from the text that economic purists
Depletion is a natural phenomenon that characterizes the development of all non-renewable resources and oil in particular. Narrowly speaking, depletion refers to the decline of production associated with a particular field, reservoir, or well. If it were not for changes in prices, costs, and technology, depletion of the world’s resources would resemble the simple decline curve of a single well.
[A] oppose shifting goods from public to private.
Estimates of oil resources by field are routinely made by geologists and engineers, but the estimates are a “best guess” given the available data and are revised as more knowledge becomes available. There is no time frame or probability associated with estimates of total resources in place. In contrast, proved reserves of crude oil are the estimated quantities that are demonstrated with reasonable certainty to be recoverable in the future from known reservoirs under existing economic and operating conditions.
[B] support the substantial reform of privatization.
Each year, production is taken from proved reserves, reducing both proved reserves and the total resource. Innovative production techniques such as well recompletions, secondary and tertiary enhanced recovery techniques, and expanded production of unconventional resources have reduced net depletion rates at the well and field levels. Advanced exploration and drilling techniques have reduced the cost of finding new pools, reduced the risk of dry holes and their costs, and allowed new pools to be developed and produced more quickly. More rapid production of resources from a field increases the return on capital because earnings are realized sooner, and therefore, discounted less.
[C] approve privatization only in developed nations.
Higher returns make some fields that are too expensive to develop under “normal” circumstances economically feasible, because reduced costs allow firms to make profits where they could not before. On the other hand, more rapid development and production of a field by definition increases the rate of depletion. While the rate of depletion increases with technological progress, the adverse effects of depletion are diminished, and higher levels of production can be maintained for longer periods of time. As depletion leads producers to abandon older fields and develop new ones, the process of developing domestic oil resources leads producers to find and develop the larger, more economical fields first. Later fields tend to be less desirable because they are farther away from existing infrastructure or smaller in size. Thus, as time progresses more effort is required to produce the same level of the resource from the same exploration area.
[D] have a strict description of public merchandise.
While the frontier for new resources is diminishing, increased innovation has, thus far, served to offset depletion at least partially, keeping production stronger than it would have been in the absence of the innovations. But eventually, as field sizes decrease, the ultimate recovery from discovered fields will shrink. Thus, despite technological improvements, ultimate recovery from the average field of the future will be smaller than from the average field today.
32. Since 1980s, there has been
[A] broad international support for privatization.
① depletion n. 耗尽，枯竭；大量减少 ② recoverable a. 可开采的
[B] much evidence for privatization in poor nations.
31. The text is primarily intended to
[C] endorsement for privatization of donor agencies.
[A] sketch a plan to delay exhaustion of existing resources.