最新研究,神奇的睡眠数字

日期:2019-08-21编辑作者:威尼斯手机娱乐官网

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核心提示: 一项研究表明,每天睡少于7小时的人,会增加心血管疾病的风险。而心血管疾病是美国致死原因之首。

Sleep Deprivation Is Surprisingly Effective as an Antidepressant。 But we don‘t know why。

一项研究表明,每天睡少于7小时的人,患心血管疾病的风险会增加。而心血管疾病是美国致死原因之首。

睡眠不足竟然能有效抑制抑郁症。不过我们并不知道为什么。

西弗吉尼亚大学医学院研究人员发表在Sleep杂志上的研究宣称,如果每天包括打盹在内的睡眠时间如果少于5个小时,会使心绞痛,冠心病,心梗及中风的危险增加一倍。而每天睡多于7小时,同样会增加罹患心血管疾病的风险。研究显示,每天睡眠9个或9个小时以上的被试者比起每天只睡7个小时的被试者,患心血管病的可能性要高50%。短时睡眠与心绞痛相关,而睡的过多和过少都与心梗和中风相关。

For those who suffer from clinical depression, there could be an unexpected source of solace。

而另一项发表在Sleep杂志上的独立研究则表明,对于经常睡不够的人,偶尔晚起会有好处。在这项研究中,宾夕法尼亚大学医学院睡眠与时间生物学组的负责人David Dinges通过研究142个睡眠严重不足的成年人发现,他们的反应速度变慢并且集中注意力的能力变差。不过,通过一晚上的睡眠回复,这些被试者的机敏程度就会得到显著恢复,而那些工作日每天只睡4小时的人,在睡10小时之后恢复尤为明显。Dinges说,早上一到两小时额外的睡眠,对长期睡眠不足者来说,确实有助于其恢复行动的机敏。

那些患有抑郁症的人,可能马上能得到一份意料之外的慰藉。

在对睡眠和心血管疾病的研究中,研究者们在西弗吉尼亚大学公共医学系的Anoop Shankar的带领下,分析了在2005年采集自全美30000个成人的数据。这些数据根据被试者的年龄,性别,种族,是否吸烟或酗酒,肥胖或是苗条,好动还是不大运动做了调整。最后,即使在排除了糖尿病、高血压、抑郁症的患者之后,结果显示睡得过多或过少仍然与心血管疾病有很大的联系。不过,作者也无法确定一个人睡多久和心血管疾病的因果关系。但他们指出,睡眠时间会影响内分泌和代谢功能,而缺少睡眠会影响糖耐量,降低胰岛素敏感性,并使血压升高,这些都会增加动脉硬化的风险。

While long-term sleep deprivation and chronic insomnia can harm your mental and emotional health, in the short term, evidence suggests, going without sleep can help。

美国睡眠医学学会建议,成年人最好每晚睡7-8小时。Shankar建议医生在评价病人患心血管疾病的风险时应询问病人的睡眠情况,制定公共健康的措施时也需考虑提高人们的睡眠时间和质量。

虽然长期的睡眠不足和失眠可以损害你的精神健康和情绪健康,但短期而言,有证据显示:缺觉是有好处的。

Seven hours the magic number for sleep: study

August 1, 2010 by Karin Zeitvogel

People who sleep more or fewer than seven hours a day, including naps, are increasing their risk for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in the United States, a study published Sunday shows.

Sleeping fewer than five hours a day, including naps, more than doubles the risk of being diagnosed with angina, coronary heart disease, heart attack or stroke, the study conducted by researchers at West Virginia University's faculty of medicine and published in the journal "Sleep" says.

And sleeping more than seven hours also increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, it says.

Study participants who said they slept nine hours or longer a day were one-and-a-half times more likely than seven-hour sleepers to develop cardiovascular disease, the study found.

The most at-risk group was adults under 60 years of age who slept five hours or fewer a night. They increased their risk of developing cardiovascular disease more than threefold compared to people who sleep seven hours.

Women who skimped on sleep, getting five hours or fewer a day, including naps, were more than two-and-a-half times as likely to develop cardiovascular disease.

Short sleep duration was associated with angina, while both sleeping too little and sleeping too much were associated with heart attack and stroke, the study says.

A separate study, also published in "Sleep", showed that an occasional long lie-in can be beneficial for those who can't avoid getting too little sleep.

In that study, David Dinges, who heads the sleep and chronobiology unit at the University of Pennsylvania school of medicine, found that 142 adults whose sleep was severely restricted for five days -- as it is for many people during the work week -- had slower reaction times and more trouble focusing.

But after a night of recovery sleep, the sleep-deprived study participants' alertness improved significantly, and the greatest improvements were seen in those who were allowed to spend 10 hours in bed after a week with just four hours' sleep a night.

"An additional hour or two of sleep in the morning after a period of chronic partial sleep loss has genuine benefits for continued recovery of behavioral alertness," Dinges said.

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In the study about sleep and cardiovascular disease, researchers led by Anoop Shankar, associate professor at WVU's department of community medicine, analyzed data gathered in a national US study in 2005 on more than 30,000 adults.

The results were adjusted for age, sex, race, whether the person smoked or drank, whether they were fat or slim, and whether they were active or a couch potato.

And even when study participants with diabetes, high blood pressure or depression were excluded from the analysis, the strong association between too much or too little sleep and cardiovascular disease remained.

The authors of the WVU study were unable to determine the causal relationship between how long a person sleeps and cardiovascular disease.

But they pointed out that sleep duration affects endocrine and metabolic functions, and sleep deprivation can lead to impaired glucose tolerance, reduced insulin sensitivity and elevated blood pressure, all of which increase the risk of hardening the arteries.

The American Academy of Sleep Medicine recommends that most adults get about seven to eight hours of sleep each night.

Shankar suggested that doctors screen for changes in sleep duration when assessing patients' risk for cardiovascluar disease, and that public health initiatives consider including a focus on improving sleep quality and quantity.

"Sleep" is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and the Sleep Research Society.

2010 AFP

关键词:睡眠不足 心血管疾病 睡眠时间

Previous studies since the 1970s have noted a correlation between reduced REM sleep and improved depression symptoms。

1970年代的研究就显示,减少快速眼动睡眠的时间,能够缓解抑郁症的症状。

A 2002 study found that one whole night of sleep deprivation resulted in an improvement in 40-60 percent of patients, as did another one in 2010。

2002年的一项研究显示,一整晚不睡觉,可以缓解40%-60%的病人的症状;2010年的一项研究也得出了同样的结果。

A 2013 study attempted to find the mechanism, linking the effect to a type of brain cell that releases a protein important for sleep。

2013年有一项研究企图弄明白这个机制,他们发现这和大脑中的一种特定细胞有关,这种细胞能分泌一种对睡眠特别重要的蛋白质。

Now a meta-analysis of 66 independent studies conducted between 1974 and 2016 has found that sleep deprivation rapidly reduces the symptoms of depression in roughly half of patients, at least when conducted in controlled inpatient settings。

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