You may have heard that coca-cola once contained an ingredient capable of sparking particular devors: cocaine. The coca in the name referred to the extracts of coca leaf that the drink's originator chemist john pemberton, mixed with his sugary syrup( it). at the time coca leaf extract mixed with wine was a common tonic( il jo), and pemberton's sweet brew was a way to get around local laws prohibiting the sale of alcohol. but the other half of the namepresents another ingredient, less infamous(名声不好的, perhaps, but also strangely potent: the kola nut.
In west Africa, people have long chewed kola nuts as stimulants, because they contain that also occurs naturally in tea,coffee ,and chocolate .They also have heart stimulants.
Historian paul love joy relates that the cultivation of kola nuts in west Africa is hundreds of years old. the leafy, spreading trees were planted on graas part of traditional rituals. even though the nuts, which need to stay moist, can be somewhat delicate to transport, traders carried them hundreds of miles throughout the forests and grasslands.
Europeans did not know of them until the 1500s when p、Portuguese ships arrived on the coast of what is now sierra leone. and while the Portuguese took part in the trade, ferrying nuts down the coast along with other goods by 1620, when English explorer Richard Jobson made his way up the Gambia, the nuts we his eyes.
By the late 19th century, kola nuts were being shipped by the tonne to Europe and the us Many made their way into medicines, intended as a kind of energy boost. one such popular me dicinal drink was vin ma a french product consisting of coca extract mixed with red wine. it as created by a french chemist, angelo mariani, in 1863. so when pemberton created his drink, it represented an ongoing trend. when cocaine eventually fell from grace as a beverage ingredient. Kola-ectract colas became popular.
The first year it was available, coca-cola averaged nine servings a day across all the atlanta is where it was sold. as it grew more popular, the company sold rights to bottle the soda, so it could travel easily. today about 1. 9 billion cokes are purchased daily it's become so iconic that attempts to change its taste in 1985- sweetening it in a move projected to boost sales proved disastrous, with widespread anger from consumers. "coca-cola classic"returned to store shelves just three months after the"new coke"was released.
These days, the coca-cola recipe is a closely guarded secret. but it's said to no longer contain kola nut extract, relying instead on artificial imitations to achieve the flavour.
- what do we learn about chemist john pemberton?
A)He used a strangely potent ingredient in a food supplement
B)he created a drink containing alcohol without breaking law
C)he became notorious because of the coca drink he developed
D)he risked breaking local law to make a drink with coca leaves
- what does the passage say about kola nuts?
A)their commercial value was first discovered by Portuguese settler
B) they contain some kind of energy boost not found in any other food
C) many were shipped to Europe in the late 19th century for medicinal us
D) they were strange to the Europeans when first imported from west Africa
- how come kola-extract colas became popular?
A)cocaine had become notorious
B)alcoholic drinks were prohibited
C) were set up to sell them
D) rights were sold to bottle the soda
- what is known about the taste of coca-cola?
A)it was so designed as to create addiction in consumers
B) it still relies on traditional kola nut extrac
C) it has become more popular among the old.
D) it has remained virtually unchanged since its creation
- what is the passage mainly about?
A)the evolution of coca-cola
B)the success story of coca-cola
C)the medicinal value of coca-cola.
D) the business strategy of coca-cola.
6.Generalize the article in your short words。
What happens if you drink a soda expired over six months？
Aspartame in diet sodas will naturally break down over time， especially if stored in higher temperatures， and in both diet and regular sodas the carbon dioxide will produce further carbonic acid （incidentally making itself flat）， but aside from a change in flavour， the beverage is likely to be completely safe to drink -- and will probably still taste good。
It would take a very， very long time for the flavour to be affected enough to be completely unacceptable -- and even then it would still be safe。